This paper identifies the economic and physical benefits attributable to precision land leveling. While the work is specific to Pakistan the implications are relevant for other arid areas of the world where irrigation is practiced.
Two sets of fields were selected, one set that had been precision leveled and another set that had been leveled using traditional techniques. These fields were resurveyed and then the farmers were interviewed every month during the winter crop season. Cutting samples were taken on all the fields during harvest. The average yield of the precision leveled fields was 2274.7 kg/ha and the yield for traditional leveled was 1681.1 kg/ha. This difference is Chaussures Lv significant at the 0.001 level. In addition the mean time to irrigate a hectare field was 2.79 h for precision leveled and 5.24 h for traditional leveled. Again this is significantly different at the 0.001 level. The change yield attributable solely to precision land leveling was calculated by regression analysis Louis Vuitton Chaussure Homme at 246.1 kg/ha per 3 cm change in max—min Ceintures Louis Vuitton Ebay range. The remaining difference in yields was attributable to increased use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on the precision leveled fields over the traditional leveled fields.
The economic analysis of precision and leveling, assuming a life of 10 years, is positive but not above the two or three to one return that is usually required to persuade subsistent farmers to invest in a new technology. However, the precision land leveling acts as a catalyst and increases the efficiency of the other associated inputs and hence is a more valuable investment than is indicated by simple economic analysis.